Development and Prospect of safety technology for

2022-10-23
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Development and Prospect of open-pit coal mining safety technology

after 1958, the state vigorously developed open-pit coal mining and began to prepare for the construction of large open-pit coal mines such as Pingshuo, Yuanbaoshan and Huolinhe. In order to adapt to the development of open-pit coal mining, the state decided to strengthen the research force of open-pit coal mining technology. In 1965, the number of scientific researchers increased to nearly 100. In 1985, Fushun Branch of the General Academy of Coal Sciences established an Open-pit Coal Mining Safety Research Institute, and invested in and equipped laboratories such as slope rock mechanics, slope rock mass deformation monitoring and instrumentation, wheel bucket excavation and crushing mechanism, blasting vibration test, mining equipment performance test, computer information center, etc

47 years, open-pit mining safety 6 The research institute has carried out a lot of research work in the aspects of mining technology, upgrading of mining equipment, blasting technology and equipment, slope stability and slope deformation monitoring technology, application of computer technology in open-pit mines, monitoring technology of open-pit mine production, geological disasters and environmental evaluation, and has completed more than 150 scientific research topics, It provides a reliable technical guarantee for the safe and efficient production of mines and contributes to the development of open-pit mining technology in China

especially since 1981, more than 110 various topics have been completed, 2.7 times that of the previous 24 years, of which 32 achievements have won national, provincial and ministerial scientific and technological progress awards

1 Research on mining technology, equipment, blasting technology and equipment

1.1 mining technology

in the 1950s, the open pit mining safety research institute has successively completed the technical transformation scheme design of Fushun West open pit mine, the research on the development mode and mining method of Haizhou Open pit mine, the research on open pit hydraulic mechanized coal mining, etc

From 1963 to 1965, together with China University of mining and technology, Shenyang Coal Mine Design Institute and other units, they surveyed 31 mining sites in four western provinces, planned 17 open-pit coal mines, and studied and determined the direction of technological development, development and mining methods and technology, laying a foundation for the construction and development of open-pit coal mines in China in the 1980s

In the mid-1960s, the mining technology of Pingshuo mining area was studied, and a development and mining plan with an annual output of 5-10 million tons was put forward. The plan includes continuous process, railway transportation process, bucket shovel, internal dumping and other combined processes. It is the first time for China to study the mining technology of super large open-pit coal mine, and its technical level reached the world level at that time

in order to cooperate with the development and construction of the five open-pit coal mines, it has undertaken the research on coal rock cutting resistance testing technology, groundwater drainage method of Yuanbaoshan Open-pit Mine, and antifreeze technology to prevent stripping materials from sticking to cars and adhesive tapes in severe cold areas in the north. The field test of anti sticking car and the low temperature test of cold resistant transportation belt in Fushun West open pit mine are the first time in China, and their results have been applied to the field and achieved good results

In the 1980s, facing the difficult situation of deep mining and development and extension of old open-pit mines, he participated in the research of technological transformation. In particular, many times participated in the technical transformation design of the rotatable oil return valve and Fushun West open pit mine, and finally put forward the design scheme of upper railway transportation, deep automobile and belt conveyor combined transportation, and mining in the internal waste distribution area. In order to cooperate with the implementation of this plan, the study on strengthening mining in the west area and realizing internal dumping in advance in the west area was carried out. The plan has been implemented for many years and has achieved good economic benefits

1.2 open pit mining equipment technology

in 1957, the "Research on improving the external characteristics of 120b shovel generator" was completed, which improved the working efficiency of the shovel by 5%~10%, and reduced electrical and mechanical failures; "Research on thyristor pulse speed regulation of 12t wire mounted electric locomotive for open pit mining" has greatly reduced the failure rate of the locomotive and saved about 12% of electricity

after the 1960s, q2-m64 down the hole drill was developed. The drill can also drill inclined holes of 0~30 degrees; The lh-200 rotary drill is developed for medium hard rocks. It can use cutting, cone, DTH and other drilling tools, and its efficiency is 3~5 times that of percussion drill. ZX-150 rotary drilling rig was jointly developed with Jilin heavy machinery factory; The efficiency of KY-150 rotary drill developed in 1986 has reached 71.5m, with a maximum of 178m, which is 2.54 times that of down the hole drill and 6.9 times that of impact drill; The developed qz3-150 three wing rotary cutting bit has the same service life as the American three wing bit, reaching 2500m, and its price is only 42% of the American bit, replacing the import. It has been used in Huolinhe open pit mine for a long time

together with Hangzhou heavy machinery, Shanghai belt conveyor machinery factory and Fushun excavation machinery factory, it undertook the development and test of China's first set of continuous process equipment. Including wheel bucket excavator, belt conveyor, ps-1000 dumping machine, yg-15 belt conveyor and yr-1 combined belt joint vulcanizer, ending the history that China cannot produce continuous process equipment. In the 1980s, hangzhong and Tiangong Institute developed the first medium-sized wheel bucket excavator in China. The open pit mining safety research institute has participated in all industrial tests and performance tests, completed the mechanical performance measurement and production capacity assessment of complete sets of equipment, and created a precedent for the performance testing of mining equipment

WUBAOSHAN, Jungar and other large open-pit coal mines have partially adopted the wheel bucket belt continuous process, and large wheel bucket excavators have been introduced from abroad. In order to cooperate with the design of wheel bucket excavators and equipment acceptance tasks of these units, research has been carried out on coal rock cutting resistance, cutting and crushing mechanism of wheel bucket excavators, design theory of wheel bucket working mechanism, cutting force of wheel bucket excavation and mechanical performance test

through the research and measurement of coal rock cutting resistance in Yuanbaoshan, Fushun, Xiaolongtan, Zhaotong, Huolinhe, Jungar, Yimin and other open-pit mines, this paper puts forward the theory of coal rock cutting resistance and the measurement method of cutting resistance and wheel bucket excavator cutting force in China, which fills the gap in this field and reaches the international level. Its achievements won the second prize for scientific and technological progress of the Ministry of coal industry. With the above theory and testing technology, the mechanical performance test and production capacity assessment of the continuous process system of Jungar and Yuanbaoshan opencast mines have been completed, which has ensured the import of equipment for the mine

during this period, the open pit mining safety research institute built the world's largest bucket wheel excavator test device, with a bucket wheel diameter of 0.95m. The device can simulate the cutting resistance of different lithology and the measurement of excavator cutting force, and study the reasonable working parameters of bucket wheel excavator. Such as: the stress state of the bucket teeth, the shape of the bucket teeth, the arrangement of the bucket teeth, the cutting speed, the rotation speed, the size of the planer, the wear resistance of the bucket teeth material, etc. The service life of the bucket teeth of the single bucket electric shovel developed is 2.5~3.0 times that of the ordinary bucket teeth

1.3 blasting technology and equipment

in order to solve the blasting quality problem of high section mining in Fushun West open pit mine, the research on high section blasting technology was carried out in 1956

from 1972 to 1973, the ballast blasting method was adopted in Haizhou Open pit mine. In 1985, the "Research on the blasting method to improve the lump coal rate in Haizhou mine" was completed. The low-power explosive with a blasting speed of 2700~3200m/s, air column filling, optimization of hole layout parameters, and millisecond delay blasting technology were used to reduce the crushing area, reduce fracture, collision, friction and crushing, and increase the lump coal rate by 2.83%, In 1992, our technical master knew all kinds of performances of the machine and carried out the research on "optimization of blasting technology in large open-pit coal mine". Through the test of Antaibao open-pit mine, the explosive quota of the mine was increased from 0.45kg/m3 Reduced to 0.319 kg/m3, The comprehensive cost was about 10.536 million yuan, and the stripping volume increased by more than 20%

in addition, we have successfully developed B2 and B3 liquid explosives, liquid explosive mixing vehicles, four-way detonators, etc. in cooperation with the engineering corps of Shenyang Army, and completed the blasting vibration test and shock absorption technology research of Antaibao, Jungar, Huolinhe, Fushun West open pit and other mines

2 slope stability and monitoring technology strengthen the experience exchange and mode implementation technology research in key industries

2.1 slope stability research

the research on slope stability technology began in the mid-1950s. In 1953, Haizhou Open pit coal mine was put into operation, and after the reconstruction of Fushun West open pit coal mine was completed, the slope sliding phenomenon occurred many times in the non working side, which seriously affected the normal production and equipment safety. Aiming at the landslide of the above two mines, the research on slope stability has been started. The main research contents are the engineering geological conditions of non working slope, physical and mechanical properties of rock, the conditions of landslide formation and stability analysis methods, and the scope of slope instability and prevention measures

in 1961, Fushun West open pit mine had four large landslides of one million cubic meters, of which No. 3 landslide threatened the safety of the lifting coal roadway of the west main roadway. The scientific researchers of our institute participated in the treatment working group composed of many departments, and completed the design and construction of slope cutting, weight reduction, drainage, reinforcement and other measures, ensuring the normal production of the lifting system

after this stage of research work, a set of theories and working methods for slope stability research of open-pit mines have been established, a scientific research team has been trained, and a rock mechanics laboratory has been established. Slope engineering research has become the leading specialty of the open pit mining safety research institute, and it is also one of the earliest professional units to carry out slope engineering research in China. He has participated in the treatment demonstration of non coal open-pit mines and landslides in the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River for many times. With the development of open-pit coal mining in China, it has successively undertaken major research projects of the state and the Ministry of coal, and completed the slope stability research and landslide prevention of Fushun, Fuxin, Pingzhuang, Antaibao, Jungar, Xiaolongtan, Yima and other open-pit coal mines. So far, more than 60 scientific research projects have been completed, of which 12 achievements have won the provincial, ministerial and national first, second and third prizes respectively

2.1.1 basic research

(1) engineering geological survey technology. Geological structure and rock stratum occurrence conditions, especially the condition of weak rock stratum, are the internal factors of landslide formation. Finding out the geological structure is the basis for determining the scale, sliding mode, stability analysis and prevention measures of landslide mass. The conventional methods are surface geological structure investigation, drilling and roadway exploration

with the development of radar detection technology and seismic wave detection technology, the goal of drillless exploration of strata and geological structures has been achieved. In 1993, in the study of the southwest slope stability project of Fushun West open pit mine, the occurrence state and distribution law of soft tuff affecting the slope stability in this area were successfully determined by shallow geological radar

in the analysis of rock mass structure, according to the characteristics of rock mass fracture, random simulation, computer digital simulation methods are applied, and the integrity of rock mass is determined by rock mass quality index and QD classification, so as to calculate the influence of rock mass structure on slope stability

(2) hydrogeology and groundwater monitoring. The existence of groundwater in the slope rock mass not only weakens the rock strength, especially reduces the shear strength of the weak layer, making the slope slide along the weak layer. Moreover, with the rise of groundwater level, the uplift force increases, which reduces the anti sliding ability of the slope body. Therefore, surface investigation and drilling hydrological holes are often used in groundwater investigation. Rock samples are taken to measure the water content of rocks, and layered water injection tests are carried out to determine the water content law and hydraulic connection of rock layers, and establish hydraulic models

in the "Seventh Five Year Plan" National Science and technology research project "development of slope safety monitoring system", a piezoresistive groundwater monitoring system is developed, which can measure the pressure of groundwater at any time. It has the characteristics of high precision, high resolution, large output signal, centralized control and automatic recording, and improves the

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